An international environmental agreement, or sometimes an environmental protocol, is a kind of treaty of international law that allows them to achieve an environmental objective. In other words, it is an “intergovernmental document that is designed as legally binding and is primarily aimed at preventing or managing the human impact on natural resources.”  Australia is known for its wide diversity of animal species and diverse environment, which includes beaches, deserts and mountains, and climate change is a major problem. The country is under the largest hole in the world`s ozone layer, which has an impact on the environment. Australia`s proximity to Antarctica raises concerns about sea level rise and changes in ocean currents that affect the climate. Global political systems, differences and conflicts are obstacles to the development of environmental protocols. First, maintaining sovereignty means that no country can be forced to participate, but is simply invited to participate. Therefore, as French says, “international law has the force of moral evocation, but few real teeth.”  Second, the North-South conflict can block cooperation and provoke conflict. The countries of the world`s South, considered the poor, generally regard the countries of the North, the rich, as the need to take responsibility for environmental degradation and to effect significant changes in their way of life, both of which the North considers reasonable. The South maintains that the North already had the opportunity to develop and to have already been heavily polluted during its industrial development. Canada`s multilateral environmental agreements include air, biodiversity and ecosystems, chemicals and waste, climate change, environmental cooperation, oceans and oceans, and meteorology.  Canada has taken an initiative because of the diversity of Canada`s natural resources, climate and populated areas, all of which can contribute to environmental stress. ACCORDS are interstate agreements that can take the form of a “soft law” that establishes non-binding principles, which parties are required to abide by when taking action to resolve a given environmental issue, or “hard rights” that define legally binding measures to achieve an environmental objective. Global environmental issues that MEAs are expected to address include biodiversity loss, the adverse effects of climate change, ozone depletion, hazardous waste, organic pollutants, marine pollution, trade in endangered species, destruction of wetlands, etc.
The main international instruments that enable countries to cooperate on a wide range of global environmental challenges are international conventions and treaties on the environment and natural resources, also known as multilateral environmental agreements (EAs). In 2002, the EAC Heads of State and Government Summit decided that regional and multilateral issues should be negotiated in bulk. The draft framework for joint participation and implementation of regional and multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) has been finalised. The objective of this framework is to guide EAC partner countries in the implementation of various multilateral environmental agreements to which partner states belong.